CVD enables large area uniform ultrathin TMDs to be prepared, but high temperature and high vacuum usage results in high cost. To realize exquisite control over the composition, layer thickness and crystal phases of TMDs, colloidal synthesis methods have been investigated as an alternative synthesis method. The variety of published reaction protocols yielding TMDs nanosheets by colloidal synthesis indicates that this approach can produce TMDs nanosheets with different dimensions and crystal structure. However, in order to achieve a high level control over the morphology and crystal structure, a systematic study of the effect of reaction parameters on the resulting nanocrystal properties is needed.
Here, we carry out a thorough investigation on the synthesis of TMDs nanocrystals using WSe2 as a model system, where we compare reactions using either carboxylic acids or alkylamines as the surfactant. Most importantly, we find that carboxylic acids yield 2H WSe2 with a flower-like morphology, whereas alkylamines yield genuine nanosheets, yet with the 1T crystal structure. Intriguingly, the former result is also obtained when no surfactants are included in the reaction. Using solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we show that neither surfactant exhibits a strong interaction with the synthesized nanosheets.
On the other hand, we find that the use of alkylamines slows down the reaction rate as compared to reactions using carboxylic acids or no surfactants. This indicates that the typical surfactant used in colloidal synthesis have only an indirect in the case of WSe2 formation, where they influence the reaction outcome by affecting the reaction rate. Specifically, plain CdSe NPLs were first synthesized and then followed by precise passivation with Cd1-xZnxSe1-ySy shells possessing a radial chemical composition gradient. The effect of precursor solubility on the morphology of NPLs was corroborated by transmission electron microscopy characterization.
The photophysical properties of NPLs were studied using absorption and photoluminescence characterization. Such Stokes shift-engineered two-dimensional NPLs can be served as an important class of building blocks for use in lasers, light emitting diodes, and solar concentrators. At room temperature, the emission wavelength of GaAsSb-capped InAs QDs, shifts up to nm with an enhancement of the luminescence characteristics.
This enhancement arises from an increase in QD height, which improves carrier confinement and reduces the impressionability of the confinement energy to QD size fluctuations. It reaches nm and nm for the ground and first excited state at room temperature, favoring the application of the ES quantum dot laser in optical-fiber communications.
Furthermore, evolution of the PL peak position, the full width at half maximum and the integrated PL intensity of the ground and excited-state QDs transitions as a function of excitation density were studied. The observed results of all samples allow us to correlate the optical properties to the excitation density dependent carriers injected in the QDs, giving access to a sensitive interplay between band filling, many-body coulomb interaction and internal electric field screening effects.
Resume : One-dimensional nanowires NWs have recently attracted great interest for high efficiency solar cells and high electron mobility transistors HEMT due to their remarkable electrical, optical and mechanical properties. From the results, the increasing of B concentration originated in the reduction of SiNW formation.
These SiNW peaks showed an asymmetric broadening, indicating the Fano effect. Two peaks at and cm—1 of local vibrational mode of B were also observed. The Ge shell thickness was optimized for the highest hole gas density. More details will be discussed on site. Fukata, et al. Zhang, et al. Resume : The aim of this work is to design new self-assembled molecular monolayers SAMs grafted on Ge exhibiting the best properties of insulation and passivation as new high-K nanodielectrics for the future generation of transistors1.
Thanks to their dipole that can be aligned by the SAM deposition strategy, such chromophores have been shown to form highly polarizable insulating films1. We have successfully developed a grafting process without acid treatment, either in one-go2 or within two steps, that reduces surface roughness.
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Further work will address multilayers of aligned organic molecules. Facchetti et al. Hohman et al. Lefevre et al. C ,, Resume : GaN is one of the most promising materials for its different potential applications in optoelectronics . Evolution of new peaks at 2. Shifting of the characteristic peak at 3. References: 1. Monroy, J. Pau, F. Calle, F. Gibart, J. Matter , 13, Jansen, Nat. Resume : Semiconductor nanocrystals offers promising properties for applications in electronics and photonics, like non-volatile memories [Tiwari95] or photodiodes for the visible or IR-wavelength region [Lehninger18].
For those, a spatially and size controlled synthesis is necessary to enable e. Also the matrix material has to be adapted to these applications. The size of the resulting crystals depends on the Ge content in the mixed layer as well as in certain limits from the initial layer thickness.
As has been shown already, TaZrOx acts as an efficient diffusion barrier for Ge. This work will show the different behaviour of size and position controlled growth of Ge nanocrystals in SiO2-Ge-mixed layers with a pure TaZrOx layer as barrier in comparison to multi-layers with Ge containing TaZrOx layers. Furthermore the structuring of the resulting superlattices by dry etching processes for further contacting schemes will be shown. Resume : The advantage of using silicon nanowires in sensorics, photovoltaics, photonics, micro- and optoelectronics is associated with unique properties, such as visible photoluminescence PL , extremely low total reflection, enhancement of Raman scattering, interband PL, etc.
In this work, large areas of of porous silicon nanowires pSiNWs arrays were obtained by the method of metal assisted chemical etching MACE of heavy doped silicon wafers. The influence of concentration of H2O2 on the structural and optical properties of pSiNWs were studied in detail. According to scanning electron microscopy images, theresulting arrays of porous nanowires were shown to have two types of porosity, and the growth rate of different porous layers depends on the concentration of H2O2.
Visible PL in spectral range nm was observed and explained by the radiative recombination of excitons in small Si nanocrystals on the surface and in the volume of pSiNWs. Resume : Iron oxides have attracted the attention of researchers due to the abundance, low cost, low toxicity and versatility of applications. In the present study, it is presented the decoration with gold nanoparticles AuNPs of hematite nanotubes that were grown on the surface of hierarchically structured Fe2O3 Fe3O4 microtubes by hydrothermal treatment.
The synthesis of AuNPs took advantage of the photoreduction property of the hematite on gold ions from HAuCl4 in aqueous solution. The photoreduction property of hematite nanotubes at the surface hierarchically structured microtubes Fe2O3 Fe3O4 was also efficient for the reduction of cytochrome c heme iron Fe3 to Fe2.
AuNPs-decorated hematite surface allowed the functionalization of the material with thiol compounds that created an efficient charge transfer channel for the material. The presence of AuNPs favored cell adherence and proliferation with the maintenance of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Resume : The next generation light source is not just simple illumination of the light but it should be provide the sunlight-like or moonlight-like lighting when turned on.
To achieve this, The quality of the light source is a very important variable. In this study, quantum dot resin and quantum dot sheet were developed using non-cadmium quantum dots as color conversion sources, and high color rendering index QD-LEDs were developed by attaching QD sheets and dispensing QD resin on LED packages.
This quantum dot hybrid lighting was optimized for indoor lighting by implementing high CRI and optimized for synthesis of eco-friendly InP nanoparticles. It also improved the dispersion characteristics in the monomer by using the ligand exchange of nanoparticles. QD hybrid lighting were produced using packages and sheets using green and red QD resins on blue LEDs, and its rendering index was Ra 93 or higher.
Resume : Colloidal semiconductor nanoplatelets are excellent nano-emitters under current study. The role of lattice mismatch strain, which has proved to be important in spherical and rod-shaped heteronanocrystals, has been largely overlooked in quasi-2D nanoplatelets. In this work we go report a theoretical study on how the deformation potential associated with strain affects the conduction and valence band profiles in such systems. The results are compared with experiments in the literature, where the role of strain has been invoked but not demonstrated.
B 96, C , Resume : When the interaction between an excitonic transition and a confined photonic mode is larger than losses, the optical response of the system is dominated by the physics of exciton-polaritons. These hybrid light-matter quasi-particles have shown to be promising candidates for photonic applications low-threshold laser, all-optical switching and fundamental research correlated many-body physics but are mostly limited to cryogenic temperatures.
Here we address the strong coupling regime of atomically-thin transition metal dichalcogenides and single-crystals 2D perovskites, showing that their remarkable excitonic properties make these structures appealing for room-temperature polariton devices. We focus on the optical nonlinearities inherited by the strong coupling regime and measurable as the energy shift of the polariton energy, finding that single crystals of 2D perovskite share notable similarities with the ideal case of GaAs quantum wells at cryogenic temperatures and, in particular, the presence of significative spin-dependent polariton interactions.
Resume : Recently, artificial honeycomb structures have attracted wide attention for fundamental research due to the tunable interplay between topology and quasiparticle interactions. In fact they offer a fascinating platform for studying Dirac physics especially thanks to the possibility to vary the physical parameters in regimes which are not accessible in graphene or in other 2D materials.
A natural way to fabricate such materials is by modulating the potential seen by a two-dimensional electron gas 2DEG found in conventional III-V semiconductor heterostructures. The idea is to create a periodic array of cylindrical holes in the active layer in order to form potential barriers for the electrons. So that, guided by previous works and predictive atomistic tight-binding calculations, we are working on the nanoperforation of InGaAs quantum wells QWs epitaxially grown on InP substrates using high-resolution e-beam lithography and highly plasma based dry etching.
The goal is to push the patterning to its limit in order to reveal Dirac fermions and non-trivial band structures predicted in these artificial 2D materials. Here, we present the work done to obtain triangular antidot lattices with periodicities of the pores down to 40 nm giving an effective honeycomb lattice constant of 23 nm. Furthermore, we report the calculations that show the possibility to measure Dirac physics in these type of samples.
Resume : Exciton-polaron interaction is one of the major luminescence quenching mechanisms in organic optoelectronic devices and this is a key challenge in the realization of electrically pumped organic lasers. In this work, we show that excitons dissociate into free charge-carriers in the presence of polarons, which leads to luminescence quenching. We perform phase sensitive photocurrent measurements to detect photo-carrier generation processes.
Measurements are done on a bottom-gate bottom contact field effect transistor FET with pentacene as the active material. We choose ohmic source and drain contacts so that the charge density required to terminate the electric field lines in the channel, due to the applied gate bias, is satisfied. The low source to drain electric field, combined with the screening effect of gate field lines by accumulated polarons, turns off exciton-dissociation due to external electric-field.
We investigate the effect of channel charge densities on the photocurrent spectral response and the photocurrent-voltage characteristics. From a systematic analysis of the external quantum efficiency measurements, with the support of optical simulations which account for interference effects in the device, we show that excitons dissociate in the presence of injected polarons in the channel. This is an efficient pathway for free charge carrier generation in organic transistors with pristine semiconductor material.
Coherent Semiconductor Optics
From gate-bias dependent photocurrent and mobility measurements we show that photo-generation saturates at relatively low gate biases. We simulate the exciton dynamics from the exciton interaction with the injected charge concentration. The simulation suggests a similar saturation trend for gate bias-modulation of steady-state exciton density. These results indicate that exciton-polaron interaction is a pathway for exciton dissociation into free charge carriers as compared to non-radiative exciton quenching reported in earlier studies [1, 2].
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Koopman, M. Natali, G. Donati, M. Muccini, and S. Hodgkiss, S. Albert-seifried, A. Rao, A. Barker, A. Campbell, R. Marsh, and R. Resume : Near zero dielectric permittivity is an uncommon property typical of plasmonic systems. Unfortunately, obtaining such a response in the visible is challenging. The quantum modeling we propose elucidates the resonant tunneling nature of the ENZ response occurring at the cavity modes, bringing usually classically treated MIM systems under the quantum domain.
As two remarkable applications, we implement a Superabsorber and a Refractive Index Sensor based on such nano-cavities. We also describe the hybridization of the ENZ modes occurring between two strongly coupled MIMs, demonstrating a mode splitting of more than six times the linewidth of the resonances. References:  Caligiuri, V. ACS Photonics , 5, — Resume : Usual way to manipulate light consists in using bulky and heavy refractive optical components.
Since recent years, new components, known as metasurfaces have been proposed. Instead of using the propagation of light inside the media, metasurfaces work by utilizing the resonant properties of nano-antennas disposed along interface to deflect or focus the light in arbitrary manner. Nevertheless, these devices are limited since their functionalities are fixed by design. New degrees of freedom could be obtain by designing tunable metasurfaces.
In this work we present metasurfaces based on Gallium Nitride material. We propose a fabrication method able to preserve the active optical properties of semiconductors, thus paving the way for the realization of tunable metadevices. Here, we present two nanofabrication processes to realize semiconductor based meta-optics. We choose Gallium Nitride material as it is thoroughly used in the semiconductor industry, thus having potential for real world applications. Beyond its widespread applications in optoelectronics and electronics applications, this material present various advantages in terms of refractive index, chemical and thermal stability, wideband transparency in the visible.
One of these nanofabrication process, used with semiconductor would offer new perspectives for the realization of next generation of light emitting meta-devices. Resume : Abstract. In this contribution, we report on negative refraction effect occurring in layered semiconductors. The origin of this effect is attributed to the presence of intersubband plasmon resonance induced by the electronic confinement of the electrons in thick quantum wells.
We theoretically show and experimentally demonstrate that thicknesses and doping levels of each layer can be carefully chosen to feature strong intersubband transitions, leading to type 1 and type 2 hyperbolic response. Understanding the optical properties of intersubband materials in the frame of hyperbolic materials would shed new light on which physical mechanisms are controlling the radiative decay of intersubband plasmon excitations.
This approach could be further utilized to designing efficient mid-IR sources. Introduction Metamaterials are artificial materials that feature uncommon physical properties. In optics the field of metamaterials has received tremendous interest over the last few years, with the demonstration of various unexpected and intriguing effects such as ultra-high refractive index and extraordinary optical activity. However optical metamaterials are mainly known owing to the fascinating possibility of realizing devices based on negative index of refraction, also called negative index materials NIM.
Material with negative index of refraction was firstly been considered in a theoretical paper by Veselago in In this latter paper, it is shown that negative index can be obtained in a material presenting simultaneous negative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability, in brief by adjusting two and matching electric and magnetic resonances in the material.
It implies that in such systems the absorption is quite relevant. In order to mitigate optical losses, lots of efforts have been made to reduce the absorption losses, considering for example gain material. A more efficient approach has been proposed in recent years. It consists on exploiting hyperbolic dispersion, i. Affecting the optical response only along one direction, hyperbolic dispersion can be realized in anisotropic medium using a single optical resonance. In such a system, also dubbed hyperbolic metamaterial HMM , one of the electric or magnetic resonance is replaced by leveraging on the material anisotropy.
The main idea behind HMM is to make use of an alternating composition of both resonant and non-resonant materials. Peculiar attention has been given to semiconductor HMM  because of their functional and fabrication advantages, substituting the metallic resonant part by a highly doped semiconductor. In this paper we present theoretical and experimental results confirming negative refraction in highly doped layered semiconductor materials and highlight the fact that this behaviour is essentially driven by the intersubband transitions ISBT in the quantum wells QW .
Samples: materials and geometry The physical system proposed in this paper is a stack of alternated layer of doped ZnO and undoped MgZnO forming a quantum wells along z direction grown on native ZnO substrate to reduce the dislocation density for sharper ISBT. The choice of ZnO is mainly related to the possibility of reaching very high doping level and because of its non-polar growth possibility, therefore avoiding the detrimental quantum confined Stark effect .
Model The problem was mathematically treated following Maxwell-Garnett theory, in the presence of both the QW and the barrier to obtain realistic material permittivity. It provides optical properties ranging from pure metal to pure dielectric passing through HMM type 2 and 1. Experimental results The theoretical prediction were tested experimentally with a samples 35 nm thick of ZnO quantum wells.
The sample is composed of 15 couples of QW-barrier having total thickness equal to nm. The hyperbolic type 1 behaviour has been detected by using a blade to stop either positive or negative refraction depending on the sample orientation and polarization. We show that for s polarization there is not any negative refraction effect while for p polarization its presence is highlighted by the sample orientation. Conclusion In conclusion we have theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the possibility of reaching negative refraction due to intersubband transition in a layered semiconductor system.
Although it is clear that intersubband designs are composed of several subwavelength layer of Drude-like materials, this work connects for the first time the concepts of intersubband plasmons with the photonic response of hyperbolic metamaterials. Due to the advanced photonic properties of HMM, we believe that these results could initiate new design for efficient mid-IR light emitting sources and quantum well detectors.
References  Gururaj V. Naik, Jingjing Liu, Alexander V. Kildishev, Vladimir M. Hoffman, , Aishwarya Sridhar, Phillip X.
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Braun, Leonid Alekseyev, Scott S. Howard, Kale J. Sivco, Viktor A. Podolskiy, Evgenii E. Hoffman, Leonid Alekseyev, Scott S. Franz, Dan Wasserman, Viktor A. Narimanov, Deborah L. Sivco and Claire Gmachl, Negative refraction in semiconductor, Nature Materials volume 6, pages — ;  Angela Vasanelli, Yanko Todorov, Carlo Sirtori, Ultra-strong light—matter coupling and superradiance using dense electron gases, C.
Physique 17 —;  M. Montes Bajo, J. Tamayo-Arriola, M. Hugues, J. Ulloa, N. Le Biavan, R. Peretti, F. Julien, J. Faist, J. Chauveau, A. Hierro, Intersubband polarons in oxides, arXiv Resume : Over the past decade, plasmonic structures and metamaterials have been intensively investigated for the control of electromagnetic radiation. The spectral response of such structures has a high dependence on the combination of materials used and their structural dimensions. Despite the promise of metamaterials and plasmonics for miniaturisation and on-chip integration, for many optoelectronic applications e.
To overcome this, we consider tunable plasmonic elements formed by coupling plasmonic components with a thin film consisting of vanadium dioxide VO2 , a phase change material. This work focuses on the changes in spectral response in the visible regime, something previously unexploited. The change in scattering properties of plasmonic structures through the phase change of VO2 was investigated.
Fluorescent spectra and time resolved measurements were taken to probe the change in fluorophore emission. All experimental results are complemented by FDTD simulations. Our results demonstrate that the hybrid structures incorporating VO2 are a promising route to dynamic tuning. The reduced dimensions and longitudinal morophology of these nanowires results in interesting optical and electrical properties and provides a great potential for many applications, including sensing, quantum computing and all those that involve photonics.
In this talk we will first review two different strategies to obtain III-V nanowires in an organized fashion on both Si and GaAs substrates. We will include nanostructures in the form of nanowires, nanoneedles and nanoscale membranes[1,2,3,4]. Then, we will review how these properties can be used to improve photonic applications such as lasers and solar cells[5,6]. Finally we will propose and substantiate the use of alternative compound semiconductors that have the potential to substitute III-V in the solar cell arena due to their higher availability in the earth crust: II3V5 compounds.
References:  J. Vukajlovic-Plestina et al, Nano Lett. Kim et al, Nano Lett. Krosgstrup et al, Nature Photon 7,  E. Friedl et al Nano Lett. Resume : III-V semiconductor NWs have become widely studied nanostructures for nanophotonics, optoelectronics and advanced nanoelectronics. For InAs NWs very strong and tunable quantum confinement effects are expected to occur for diameters well below 30 nm [1, 2] — which has hitherto been difficult to reach.
We present InAs NWs grown along the  direction on SiO2-masked Si using a completely catalyst-free vapour-solid VS growth mechanism [3, 4] via selective-area molecular beam epitaxy. In a first approach we show how by direct bottom-up epitaxy the NW dimensions can be controlled by tuning the growth parameters to finally obtain sub nm diameter InAs NWs. In a second approach, we explore a so-called reverse reaction growth mechanism to intentionally thin as-grown NWs by in situ thermal annealing .
Resume : Nanowires NWres experience stress by their environment. In return, the environment of NWres experiences a stress response which may lead to propagated strain and change in shape and size of nanowire cross sections . Our fundamental insights into NWre structures offer a universal gauge and thus enable major advancements in data interpretation and understanding of zb NWres .
As outlook, we introduce the concept of morphing nanowire cross sections by number sub-series starting from nominal cross section shapes. With these, we can describe nearly arbitrary cross sections as encountered in experiment. Smith, Submitted to Acta Cryst. B  DOI: Resume : Radial-junction RJ solar cells based on silicon nanowires SiNWs are currently being investigated and improved by several research groups around the world [1, 2].
Different particle size distributions have been achieved by centrifugation and dilution processes, after which SnO2 NPs have been reduced to metallic Sn droplets by the hydrogen plasma treatment to serve as catalysts for the plasma-assisted vapor-liquid-solid growth of SiNWs. We have achieved the Voc of over 0. Adachi et al. Misra et al. Al-Ghzaiwat et al. Dai et al. We showed that low-temperature growth beneficial for a variety process flows and growth substrates where excessive heat is detrimental, particularly for plastic substrates.
In this work, we synthesize InAs nanowires in-situ on flexible PI substrates without any need for transfer techniques. Presently semiconductor nanowires are routinely grown on high-priced crystalline substrates as it is extremely challenging to grow directly on plastics and flexible substrates due to high temperature requirements and substrate preparation.
At the same time plastic substrates can offer many advantages such as extremely low price, light weight, mechanical flexibility, shock and thermal resistance and biocompatibility. Hence there is a high demand for direct growth of semiconductor nanowires on flexible plastics using epitaxial techniques. We show that the fabricated NWs are optically and electrically active with strong light emission in the infrared range. Overall, we demonstrate that light-emitting nanowires can be synthesized directly on flexible plastic substrates inside a MOVPE reactor, and we believe that our results will further advance the development of the nanowires-based flexible electronic devices.
Resume : In the last decade, metal oxide core-shell nanowires have focused the attention from both scientific and technologic point of views. Due to their unique properties such as high aspect ratio, quantum confinement and large interface area which can enhance the generation of electron-hole pairs leading to new functionalities, these nanostructures have applications in photodetectors, solar cells, photocatalysis, sensors etc. From the metal oxides, ZnO is an n-type semiconductor with a wide direct band gap of 3.
Thus, by combining ZnO and CuO into radial core-shell nanowires, a type II heterojunction featured by a good control of the charge carrier generation at the interface between the two semiconductors can be obtained. In this context, ZnO-CuO core-shell radial heterojunction nanowire arrays were prepared using thermal oxidation in air and radiofrequency magnetron sputtering.
Morphological, structural, optical, compositional and surface chemistry properties of the obtained nanowire arrays were evaluated. Further, individual ZnO-CuO core-shell nanowires were contacted using photolithography, electron beam lithography and thin film deposition techniques in order to investigate their electrical and photoelectrical properties for applications in optoelectronic devices. The architecture was found to be a promising one for a wide field of applications ranging from photodetectors to biosensors.
Resume : The increasing interest in area, such as pollution control, of detection of hazardous gases has lent prominence to gas sensing devices. Solid state gas sensors based on tin oxide thin films have been broadly investigated due to their manufacturing simplicity. In present study the growth of tin oxide shell around the 1D Si core formed by Metal Assisted Wet Chemical Etching has been investigated. For the first time, in-situ mechanical treatment of the grown SiNWs array which allows non-destructive surface composition estimation, atomic and electronic structure profiling have been performed.
The decomposition of SnO2 phase was observed at the temperature higher than C with phases transformation from SnO2-x and SnO to metallic tin. The study was supported by Russian Science Foundation Project Resume : This talk will cover our work on micro- and nano-scale lasers. We demonstrated integration of dye-based whispering-gallery micro-lasers into live cells and showed that this provides a novel way of tagging and tracking individual cells in large cell populations over extended periods of time.
We are currently developing this approach further to perform in vivo intracellular sensing and cell tracking, e. In very recent work, we also demonstrated miniaturization of our intracellular lasers to sub-micrometer dimensions which we achieved by making use of the large optical gain and high refractive index of inorganic semiconductor quantum well materials.
Resume : Nanostructured materials have the potential to significantly enhance the performance of electronic devices as recently demonstrated for chemical sensors, batteries, and photodetectors. This has resulted in a gold rush toward novel applications ranging from flexible electronics to wearable nanogenerators.
Despite these achievements, integration of nanomaterials in devices is challenging, and their assembly in suboptimal structures, lacking of hierarchical design, drastically limit the final performance. Here, we will present the fabrication of highly performing optical gas sensors by the multi-scale engineering of ultraporous semiconductor nanoparticle networks on Au metasurfaces. We will showcase the use of scalable and low cost synthesis approaches for the wafer-level fabrication of tailored and well-reproducible 3D morphologies of multi-functional nanoclusters.
We will conclude with recent achievements in the nanofabrication of semiconductor-plasmonic nanoparticle structures for localized surface plasmon resonance and chemical sensing . Fusco, Z. Resume : The use of magnetic nanoparticles NPs to convert electromagnetic energy into heat is known to be a key strategy for numerous biomedical applications but is also an approach of growing interest in the field of catalysis.
We have shown that, associated to catalytic metals Ni, Ru , iron carbide NPs submitted to magnetic excitation very efficiently catalyze CO2 hydrogenation in a dedicated continuous-flow reactor. Zitate pro Jahr. Doppelte Zitate.
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