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Columella first century CE included Cato and Varro among many sources for On Agriculture , but his personal experience was paramount. Written in prose except for the hexameters on horticulture of Book 10, the work is richly informative about country life in first century CE Italy. Every Good Man is Free. On the Contemplative Life. On the Eternity of the World.

Against Flaccus. Apology for the Jews. On Providence. Jewish Antiquities, Volume V: Books History of Alexander, Volume I: Books The first two of ten books have not survived and material is missing from books 5, 6, and Natural History, Volume V: Books Roman Antiquities, Volume V: Books Concerning the Team of Horses. Against Callimachus.

Against Lochites. Against Euthynus. Erotic Essay. On the Embassy to Gaius. General Indexes. Alciphron, Aelian, and Philostratus: The Letters. The fictitious, highly literary Letters of Alciphron second century CE are mostly to invented characters. The Letters of Farmers by Aelian c. The Erotic Epistles of Philostratus perhaps born c. Library of History, Volume V: Books On Invention.

The Best Kind of Orator. Daily Round. Divinity of Christ. Origin of Sin. Fight for Mansoul. Against Symmachus 1. Prudentius born CE used allegory and classical Latin verse forms in service of Christianity.

Library of History, Volume X: Books Lycurgus was with Demosthenes in the anti-Macedonian faction. But Dinarchus favored an oligarchy under Macedonian control and Demades supported the Macedonian cause too. Against Symmachus 2. Crowns of Martyrdom. Scenes From History. On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away.

On the Cosmos. Alexandrian War. African War. Spanish War. African War and Spanish War are detailed accounts clearly by officers who had shared in the campaigns. But most recent editors attribute it to an unknown author. Julius Obsequens. On Compliancy. On Envy and Hate.

  1. Prisoners of Rhodesia: Inmates and Detainees in the Struggle for Zimbabwean Liberation, 1960–1980.
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On Praising Oneself Inoffensively. On the Delays of the Divine Vengeance. On the Sign of Socrates.

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On Exile. Consolation to His Wife. On the Principle of Cold. Beasts Are Rational. On the Eating of Flesh. On Trees. City of God, Volume V: Books Natural History, Volume X: Books Aetia, Iambi, Hecale and Other Fragments. Hero and Leander. Callimachus Musaeus Trypanis, C. Gelzer, T. Whitman, Cedric H. Hero and Leander by Musaeus fifth or sixth century CE is a short epic poem. Dialogue on Love. Causes of Natural Phenomena. Reply to Colotes in Defence of the Other Philosophers.

Is "Live Unknown" a Wise Precept? On Music. How to Write History. The Dipsads. Herodotus or Aetion. Zeuxis or Antiochus. A Slip of the Tongue in Greeting. Apology for the "Salaried Posts in Great Houses. A Conversation with Hesiod. The Scythian or The Consul. Hermotimus or. Dialogues of the Dead. Dialogues of the Sea-Gods. Dialogues of the Gods.

Dialogues of the Courtesans. Lucius or The Ass. Dicta Catonis. Rutilius Namatianus. In Tetrabiblos , a core text in the history of astrology, the preeminent ancient astronomer Ptolemy c. From the same period come the lively fables in Latin verse written by Phaedrus , which satirize social and political life in Augustan Rome. History of Animals, Volume I: Books Ennead I. His writings were edited by his disciple Porphyry , who published them sometime between and CE in six sets of nine treatises each Enneads , with a biography of his master in which he also explains his editorial principles.

In On the Characteristics of Animals , Aelian c. Pro Caelio. De Provinciis Consularibus. Pro Balbo. Natural Questions, Volume I: Books Seneca c. In Book 1 he discusses fires in the atmosphere; in 2, lightning and thunder; in 3, bodies of water. Libanius — CE , who was one of the last great publicists and teachers of Greek paganism, has much to tell us about the tumultuous world of the fourth century CE.

His works include Orations , the first of which is an autobiography, and Letters. History of the Empire, Volume I: Books The History of Herodian born c. Ancient Testimonia. Eusebius's Reply to Hierocles. Unidentified Fragments. Bacchylides wrote masterful choral poetry of many types. Letters to Quintus and Brutus. Letter Fragments. Letter to Octavian. Handbook of Electioneering. Two invective speeches linked with Cicero are probably anonymous exercises. The Letter to Octavian likely dates from the third or fourth century CE.

The Handbook of Electioneering was said to be written by Quintus to Cicero. Declamations, Volume I: Controversiae, Books Seneca the Elder? Dionysius of Halicarnassus , born c. They constitute an important development from the somewhat mechanical techniques of rhetorical handbooks to more sensitive criticism of individual authors. Letters to Ammaeus and Pompeius. Cornelius Nepos c. Extant are parts of his De Viris Illustribus , including biographies of mostly Greek military commanders and of two Latin historians, Cato and Atticus.

In Astronomica first century CE , the earliest extant treatise we have on astrology, Manilius provides an account of celestial phenomena and the signs of the Zodiac. He also gives witty character sketches of persons born under particular constellations. In the latter, Theophrastus turns to plant physiology. Books 1 and 2 are concerned with generation, sprouting, flowering and fruiting, and the effects of climate.

Diseases 3. Internal Affections. In Books 3 and 4, Theophrastus studies cultivation and agricultural methods. In Books 5 and 6, he discusses plant breeding; diseases and other causes of death; and distinctive flavours and odours. Letters Places in Man. Prorrhetic Use of Liquids. Haemorrhoids and Fistulas. Children of Heracles. Nemean Odes. Isthmian Odes. Wasps satirizes Athenian enthusiasm for jury service. Peace is a rollicking attack on war-makers.

Valerius Maximus compiled his handbook of notable deeds and sayings in the reign of Tiberius 14—37 CE. Homeric Hymns. Homeric Apocrypha. Lives of Homer. Genealogical epic of that archaic era includes poems that create prehistories for Corinth and Samos. These works are an important source of mythological record. Thebaid, Volume II: Books The Lesser Declamations perhaps date from the second century CE and are perhaps derived from Quintilian.

The collection originally consisted of sample cases for legal training. Comments and suggestions the instructor adds to his model speeches for fictitious court cases offer insight into Roman law and education. Over forty of his plays were read in antiquity, from which nearly a thousand fragments survive.

The Shield. Catalogue of Women. Other Fragments. Though attributed to Hesiod eighth or seventh century BC in antiquity, the Catalogue of Women , a presentation of legendary Greek heroes and episodes according to maternal genealogy; The Shield , a counterpoint to the Iliadic shield of Achilles; and certain poems that survive as fragments were likely not composed by Hesiod himself. Fragments: Oedipus-Chrysippus. Hellenistic Collection: Philitas. Alexander of Aetolia. Works by authors such as Philitas of Cos , Alexander of Aetolia , Hermesianax of Colophon , Euphorion of Chalcis and, especially, Parthenius of Nicaea , who composed the mythograpical Sufferings in Love , represent rich inventiveness in Hellenistic prose and poetry from the fourth to the first century BCE.

Coan Prenotions. Anatomical and Minor Clinical Writings. Cast in the form of a dialogue it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion. Cast in the form of a dialogue, it treats diverse topics while showcasing Virgil as master of all human knowledge, from diction to religion. The era of Old Comedy c. But the work of many other poets, including Cratinus and Eupolis , the other members, with Aristophanes, of the canonical Old Comic Triad, survives in fragments.

Method of Medicine, Volume I: Books In Method of Medicine , Galen — CE provides a comprehensive and influential account of the principles of treating injury and disease. Enlivening the detailed case studies are many theoretical and polemical discussions, acute social commentary, and personal reflections.

In The Learned Banqueters, Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. The work which dates to the very end of the second century AD is amusing reading and of extraordinary value as a treasury of quotations from works now lost. Nature of the Child. Diseases 4. Nature of Women and Barrenness. Discourses 1 and 2. Heroicus is a vineyard conversation about the beauty, continuing powers, and worship of the Homeric heroes. Gymnasticus is the sole surviving ancient treatise on sports, which reshapes conventional ideas about the athletic body.

Fragments of the Histories. Letters to Caesar. In this volume, John T. Ramsey has freshly edited the Histories and the two pseudo-Sallustian Letters to Caesar , completing the Loeb Classical Library edition of his works. On the Constitution of the Art of Medicine. The Art of Medicine. A Method of Medicine to Glaucon. In the three works in this volume, On the Constitution of the Art of Medicine , The Art of Medicine , and A Method of Medicine to Glaucon , the physician, philosopher, scientist, and medical historian Galen of Pergamum covers fundamental aspects of his practice in a lucid and engaging style.

Volume II of the nine-volume Loeb edition of Early Greek Philosophy presents preliminary chapters on ancient doxography, the cosmological and moral background, and includes the early Ionian thinkers Pherecydes, Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. Aelius Aristides —after , among the most versatile authors of the Second Sophistic and an important figure in the transmission of Hellenism, produced speeches and lectures, declamations on historical themes, polemical works, prose hymns, and essays on a wide variety of subjects.

Apuleius born ca. In his treatises Hygiene , Thrasybulus , and On Exercise with a Small Ball , Galen of Pergamum addresses topics of preventive medicine, health, and wellness that continue to resonate with practices of modern doctors and physical therapists. Hygiene, Volume II: Books 5—6. On Exercise with a Small Ball. Minor Works. A lexicon of therapeutic agents is included. Menander Rhetor.

Street Art and Murals of Lexington, Kentucky: Volume IV - Fabulous In Fayette

Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Ars Rhetorica. The instructional treatises of Menander Rhetor and the Ars Rhetorica , deriving from the schools of rhetoric that flourished in the Greek East from the 2nd through 4th centuries AD, provide a window into the literary culture, educational practices, and social concerns of these Greeks under Roman rule, in both public and private life. Based on the critical edition of Malcovati, this three-volume Loeb edition of Roman Republican oratory begins with Ap. Claudius Caecus — BC and with the exceptions of Cato the Elder and Cicero includes all individuals for whom speech-making is attested and for whose speeches quotations, testimonia, or historiographic recreations survive.

In The Number of the Heavens , Tom Siegfried, the award-winning former editor of Science News , shows that one of the most fascinating and controversial ideas in contemporary cosmology—the existence of multiple parallel universes—has a long and divisive history that continues to this day.

We spoke to him about the possible existence of a multiverse and the co …. The digital Loeb Classical Library loebclassics. Apple: Competition in America. Join Our Mailing List. Roman History, Volume I: Books Suppliant Women. Heracles Euripides Kovacs, David Euripides c. Ion Euripides Kovacs, David Euripides c.

Orestes Euripides Kovacs, David Euripides c. Medea Euripides Kovacs, David Euripides c. Elegies Propertius Goold, G. Didache Ehrman, Bart D. Misopogon Julian Wright, Wilmer C. Caligula Suetonius Rolfe, J. Dialogue on Oratory Tacitus Hutton, M. Peterson, W. On Ends Cicero Rackham, H. Persian War Procopius Dewing, H. Philosophies for Sale Lucian Harmon, A. Olympian Odes. Works and Days. Testimonia Hesiod Most, Glenn W. Phaedra Seneca Fitch, John G.

Aeneid: Books Virgil Fairclough, H. Rushton Virgil 70—19 BCE was a poet of immense virtuosity and influence. Appendix Vergiliana Virgil Fairclough, H. Book 5: Erotic Epigrams Paton, W. Gregory the Theologian Paton, W. Nicomachean Ethics Aristotle Rackham, H. Rand, E. Tester, S. Octavia Seneca Fitch, John G. Vandalic War Procopius Dewing, H. Anabasis Xenophon Brownson, Carleton L. Juvenal and Persius Juvenal Persius Braund, Susanna Morton Bite and wit characterize two seminal and stellar authors in the history of satirical writing, Persius 34—62 CE and Juvenal writing about sixty years later.

Speeches Aeschines Adams, C. Gothic War Procopius Dewing, H. The Library, Volume I: Books Epitome Apollodorus Frazer, James G. Mair, G. Discourses, Books Epictetus Oldfather, W. Pane Claudian Platnauer, M. Rape of Proserpina Claudian Platnauer, M. Eumenides Aeschylus Sommerstein, Alan H. Nutriment Hippocrates Jones, W. Dentition Hippocrates Jones, W. Mochlicon Hippocrates Withington, E. Ex Ponto Ovid Wheeler, A. On Divination Cicero Falconer, W. Vince, J. Fragments Julian Wright, Wilmer C. Pro Plancio Cicero Watts, N. Fragments Polybius Paton, W. Olson, S.

Douglas For this six-volume edition of The Histories , W. Euthydemus Plato Lamb, W. Gorgias Plato Lamb, W. Apology Xenophon Marchant, E. Todd, O. General Index Thucydides Smith, C. McElwain, Mary B. Knights Aristophanes Henderson, Jeffrey Aristophanes c. Wealth Aristophanes Henderson, Jeffrey Aristophanes c. Constitution of the Athenians Xenophon Marchant, E. Bowersock, G. The Life. Against Apion Josephus Thackeray, H. Ormerod, H. Philippics Cicero Shackleton Bailey, D. Art of Rhetoric Aristotle Freese, J. Rushton The poetry of Horace born 65 BCE is richly varied, its focus moving between public and private concerns, urban and rural settings, Stoic and Epicurean thought.

Epinomis Plato Lamb, W. Isaeus Isaeus Forster, E. Douglas In The Learned Banqueters late-2nd century CE , Athenaeus describes a series of dinner parties at which the guests quote extensively from Greek literature. Silvae Statius Shackleton Bailey, D. On the Republic. The Encheiridion Epictetus Oldfather, W.

Whitaker, G. On the Giants Philo Colson, F. Cornford, F. Consolation Ovid Mozley, J. Epistles Plato Bury, R. For the P Demosthenes Vince, J. Lysias Lysias Lamb, W. On Sobriety Philo Colson, F. Rendall, Gerald H. On Architecture, Volume I: Books Vitruvius Granger, Frank On Architecture , completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture.

Fasti Ovid Frazer, James G. Callistratus, Descriptions Philostratus the Elder Philostratus the Younger Callistratus Fairbanks, Arthur Sixty-five descriptions, ostensibly of paintings in a gallery at Naples, are credited to an Elder Philostratus born c. Discourses Dio Chrysostom Cohoon, J. Tyrtaeus Solon Theognis Mimnermus The Greek poetry of the seventh to the fifth century BCE that we call elegy was composed primarily for banquets and convivial gatherings. Archilochus Semonides Hipponax The poetry of the seventh to the fifth centuries BCE that the Greeks called iambic seems connected with cult songs used in religious festivals, but its purpose is unclear.

Select Letters Jerome Wright, F. Politics Aristotle Rackham, H. Edgar, C. On the Nature of the Gods. Academics Cicero Rackham, H. Indica Arrian Brunt, P. McGuire, M. Metaphysics, Volume I: Books Aristotle Tredennick, Hugh Nearly all the works Aristotle — BCE prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda some are spurious. On Dreams Philo Colson, F. On Architecture, Volume II: Books Vitruvius Granger, Frank On Architecture , completed by Vitruvius sometime before 27 CE and the only work of its kind to survive antiquity, serves not professionals but readers who want to understand architecture.

Aetna Duff, J. Virtues and Vices Aristotle Rackham, H. Argonautica Valerius Flaccus Mozley, J. Cyril Nearly all the works Aristotle — BCE prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda some are spurious. On Breath Aristotle Hett, Walter Stanley Nearly all the works Aristotle — BCE prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda some are spurious. On Abraham. On Joseph. On Moses Philo Colson, F. Manuwald, Gesine Quintus Ennius — , widely regarded as the father of Roman literature, was instrumental in creating a new Roman literary identity, domesticating the Greek forms of epic and drama, and pursuing a range of other literary and intellectual pursuits.

Letters: Books Sidonius Anderson, W. Against Aristogeiton 1 and 2 Demosthenes Vince, J. Disowned Lucian Harmon, A. Plutarch Babbitt, Frank Cole Plutarch c. On Melissus, Xenophanes, Gorgias Aristotle Hett, Walter Stanley Nearly all the works Aristotle — BCE prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda some are spurious.

Andocides Maidment, K. Antiphon Andocides Antiphon of Athens, born c. Pro Sestio. In Vatinium Cicero Gardner, R. Accius Warmington, Eric Herbert Livius Andronicus Naevius Pacuvius Accius Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius , Caecilius , Livius Andronicus , Naevius , Pacuvius , Accius , Lucilius , and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions. Problems, Volume I: Books Aristotle Mayhew, Robert Although Problems is an accretion of multiple authorship over several centuries, it offers a fascinating technical view of Peripatetic method and thought.

Progression of Animals Aristotle Peck, A. Forster, E. Pro Flacco Cicero Macdonald, C. Prior Analytics Aristotle Cooke, Harold Percy Tredennick, Hugh Nearly all the works Aristotle — BCE prepared for publication are lost; the priceless ones extant are lecture materials, notes, and memoranda some are spurious. The Twelve Tables Warmington, Eric Herbert Lucilius Extant early Latin writings from the seventh or sixth to the first century BCE include epic, drama, satire, translation and paraphrase, hymns, stage history and practice, and other works by Ennius , Caecilius , Livius Andronicus , Naevius , Pacuvius , Accius , Lucilius , and other anonymous authors; the Twelve Tables of Roman law; archaic inscriptions.

Fragments Varro Kent, Roland G. Co Plutarch Helmbold, W. On the Heavens Aristotle Guthrie, W. Orator Cicero Hendrickson, G. Hubbell, H. On Buildings. General Index Procopius Dewing, H. Downey, Glanville In On Buildings , the Byzantine historian Procopius late fifth century to after CE describes the churches, public buildings, fortifications, and bridges Justinian erected throughout his empire, from the Church of St. At Inverness, they took the road west to Glen Docherty and from there gazed across the crystalline waters of Loch Maree.

Isle Maree is small and seldom visited, but it has played host to a remarkable array of rites and wonders. Its shores remember Druid sacrifices, Saintly deeds and solemn funeral processions. Its soil holds Viking graves, a wish tree studded with ancient coins, and the vanishing traces of an enchanted well. Some specimens of it have been found by Dr. Abbott near Trenton, and by other collectors in Pennsylvania, [88] and its scarcity in modern collections is to be attributed to its being bought up and melted by the whites rather than to its limited employment.

Soap stone was hollowed out with considerable skill, to form bowls, and the wood of the sassafras tree was highly esteemed for the same purpose Kalm. The maize was broken up in wooden or stone mortars with a stone pestle, the native name of which was pocohaac , a word signifying also the virile member. Their arms were the war club or tomahawk, tomhickan , the bow, hattape , and arrow, alluns , the spear, tanganaoun , and for defence Bishop Ettwein states they carried a round shield of thick, dried hide.

The spear was also used for spearing fish, which they, moreover, knew how to catch with "brush nets," and with fish hooks made of bone and the dried claws of birds Kalm. The paints and dyes used by the Lenape and neighboring Indians were derived both from the vegetable and mineral realms. From the former they obtained red, white and blue clays, which were in such extensive demand that the vicinity of those streams in New Castle county, Delaware, which are now called White Clay Creek and Red Clay Creek, was widely known to the natives as Walamink , the Place of Paint.

The vegetable world supplied a variety of dyes in the colored juices of plants. These were mixed with the acid juice of the wild, sweet-scented crab apple Pyrus coronaria ; in Lenape, tombic'anall , to fix the dye. A red was yielded by the root of the Sanguinaria Canadensis , still called "Indian paint root;" an orange by the root of Phytolacca decandra , the poke or pocoon; a yellow by the [Pg 54] root of Hydrastis Canadensis ; a black by a mixture of sumac and white walnut bark, etc.

The only domestic animal they possessed was a small species of dogs with pointed ears. These were called allum , and were preserved less for protection or for use in hunting than for food, and especially for ceremonial purposes. The custom of common ossuaries for each gens appears to have prevailed among the Lenape. Gabriel Thomas states that: "If a person of Note dies very far away from his place of residence, they will convey his Bones home some considerable Time after, to be buried there. One of these communal graveyards of the Minsis covers an area of six acres on the Neversink creek, [94] while, according to tradition, another of great antiquity and extent was located on the islands in the Delaware river, above the Water-Gap.

The accuracy with which the natives computed time becomes a subject of prime consideration in a study of their annals. It would appear that the Eastern Algonkins were not deficient in astronomical knowledge. Roger Williams remarks, "they much observe the Starres, and their very children can give names to many of them;" [96] and the same testimony is borne by Wassenaer. The latter, speaking of the tribes around New York Harbor, in , says that their year began with the first moon after the February moon; and that the time for planting was calculated by the rising of the constellation Taurus in a certain quarter.

They named this constellation the horned head of some great fictitious animal. Zeisberger observes that, in his day, the Lenape did not have a fixed beginning to their year, but reckoned from one seeding time to another, or from when the corn was ripe, etc. The [Pg 56] Chipeways count by winters pipun-agak , in which the first word means winter, and the second is a plural form similar to the Del.

They recognized only twelve moons in the year and not thirteen, as did the New England nations; at least, the names of but twelve months have been preserved. The picture writing of the Delawares has been quite fully described by Zeisberger, Loskiel and Heckewelder. It was scratched upon stone Loskiel , or more frequently cut in or painted upon the bark of trees or pieces of wood. The colors were chiefly black and red. The system was highly conventionalized, so that it could readily be understood by all their tribes, and also by others with whom they came in contact, the Shawnees, Wyandots, Chipeways, etc.

The subjects had reference not merely to matters of present interest, but to the former history of their nation, and were directed "to the preservation of the memory of famous men, and to the recollection of events and actions of note. The material on which the drawings were made was generally so perishable that few examples have been left to us. One, a stone about seven inches long, found in central New Jersey, has been described and figured by Dr. Several "gorgets" smooth stone tablets pierced with holes for suspension, and probably used for ceremonial purposes , stone knives and pebbles, showing inscribed marks and lines, and rude figures, are engraved in Dr.

Abbott's book; others similar have been seen in Bucks and Berks counties, Pa. There was a remarkable series of hieroglyphics, some eighty in number, on a rock at Safe Harbor, on the Susquehanna. They have been photographed and described by Prof. Porter, of Lancaster, but have yet to be carefully analyzed.

If the rude drawings appended to the early treatises as signatures of native sachems be taken as a guide, little or no uniformity prevailed in the personal signs. The same chieftain would, on various occasions, employ symbols differing so widely that they have no visible relation. An interesting incident is recorded by Friend John Richardson when on a visit to William Penn, at his manor of Pennsburg, in Penn asked the Indian interpreter to give him some idea of what the native notion of God was.

The interpreter, at a loss for words, had recourse to picture writing, and describing a number of circles, one inside the other, he pointed to the centre of the innermost and smallest one, and there, "placed, as he said, by way of representation, the Great Man. It purports to be an inscription found on the Muskingum river in , and the interpretation is said to have been supplied by the celebrated Delaware chief, Captain White Eyes Coquethagechton.

As interpreted, it relates to massacres of the whites by the Delaware chief, Wingenund, in the border war of There is a tissue of errors here. The pictograph, "drawn with charcoal and oil on a tree," must have been quite recent, and is not likely to have referred to events seventeen years antecedent. There is no evidence that Wingenund took part in Pontiac's conspiracy, and he was the consistent friend of [Pg 59] the whites.

And finally, White Eyes, the alleged interpreter in , had died at Tuscarawas, two years before, Nov. The Algonkin nations very generally preserved their myths, their chronicles, and the memory of events, speeches, etc. As early as , the Jesuit missionaries in Canada made use of these to teach their converts the prayers of the Church and their sermons. The Lenape words for book, malackhickan , Camp. In later days, instead of burning the marks upon the sticks, they were painted, the colors as well as the figures having certain conventional meanings.

These sticks are described as about six inches in length, slender, though varying in shape, and tied up in bundles. Heckewelder, olumapisid , and a head chief of the Lenape, usually called Olomipees , was thus named, apparently as preserver of such records. It means "the place of paint. Roger Williams, describing the New England Indians, speaks of " Wunnam , their red painting, which they most delight in, and is both the Barke of the Fine, as also a red Earth. The word is derived from Narr. The Indian who had artistically bedaubed his skin with red, ochreous clay, was esteemed In full dress, and delightful to look upon.

Hence the term wulit , fine, pretty, came to be applied to the paint itself. The custom of using such sticks, painted or notched, was by no means peculiar to the Delawares. They were familiar to the Iroquois, and the early travelers found them in common employment among the southern tribes. As the art advanced, in place of simple sticks, painted or notched, wooden tablets came into use, on which the symbols were scratched or engraved with a sharp flint or knife.

Such are those still in use among the Chipeway, described by Dr. James as "rude pictures carved on a flat piece of wood;" [] by the native Copway, as "board plates;" [] and more precisely [Pg 62] by Mr. Schoolcraft, as "a tabular piece of wood, covered on both sides with a series of devices cut between parallel lines.

The Chipeway terms applied to these devices or symbols are, according to Mr. Schoolcraft, kekeewin , for those in ordinary and common use, and kekeenowin , for those connected with the mysteries, the "meda worship" and the "great medicine. The character of the Delawares was estimated very differently, even by those who had the best opportunities of judging. The missionaries are severe upon them. Brainerd described them as "unspeakably indolent and slothful. They have little or no ambition or resolution; not one in a thousand of them that has the spirit of a man.

He speaks of their alleged bravery with the utmost contempt, and morally he puts them down as "the most ordinary and the vilest of savages. Perhaps these worthy missionaries measured them by the standard of the Christian ideal, by which, alas, we all fall wofully short. Certainly, other competent observers report much more cheerfully.

One of the first explorers of the Delaware, Captain Thomas Young , describes them as "very well proportioned, well featured, gentle, tractable and docile. Of their domestic affections, Mr. Heckewelder writes: "I do not believe that there are any people on earth who are more attached to their relatives and offspring than these Indians are.

Their action toward the Society of Friends in Pennsylvania indicates a sense of honor and a respect for pledges which we might not expect. They had learned and well understood that the Friends were non-combatants, and as such they never forgot to spare them, even in the bloody scenes of border warfare. The fact that for more than forty years after the founding of Penn's colony there was not a single murder committed on a settler by an Indian, itself speaks volumes for their self-control and moral character.

So far from seeking quarrels [Pg 64] with the whites they extended them friendly aid and comfort. Even after they had become embittered and corrupted by the gross knavery of the whites for example, the notorious "long walk," and the debasing influence of alcohol, such an authority as Gen. Harrison could write these words about the Delawares: "A long and intimate knowledge of them, in peace and war, as enemies and friends, has left upon my mind the most favorable impression of their character for bravery, generosity and fidelity to their engagements. That intellectually they were by no means deficient is acknowledged by Brainerd himself.

With the hints given us in various authors, it is not difficult to reconstruct the primitive religious notions of the Delawares. They resembled closely those of the other Algonkin nations, and were founded on those general mythical principles which, in my "Myths of the New World," I have shown existed widely throughout America. These are, the worship of Light, especially in its concrete manifestations of fire and the sun; of the Four Winds, as typical of the cardinal points, and as the rain bringers; and of the Totemic Animal.

As the embodiment of Light, some spoke of the sun as a deity, [] while their fifth and greatest festival was held in honor of Fire, which they personified, and called the Grandfather of all Indian nations. They assigned to it twelve divine assistants, who were represented by so many actors in the ceremony, with evident reference to the twelve moons or months of the year, the fire being a type of the heavenly blaze, the sun.

But both Sun and Fire were only material emblems of the mystery of Light. This was the "body or fountain of deity," which Brainerd said they described to him in terms that he could not clearly understand; something "all light;" a being [Pg 66] " in whom the earth, and all things in it, may be seen;" a "great man, clothed with the day, yea, with the brightest day, a day of many years, yea, a day of everlasting continuance. Such was the extraordinary doctrine which a converted priest of the native religion informed Brainerd was the teaching of the medicine men.

The familiar Algonkin myth of the "Great Hare," which I have elsewhere shown to be distinctively a myth of Light, [] was also well known to the Delawares, and they applied to this animal, also, the appellation of the "Grandfather of the Indians. As in Mexico and elsewhere, this light or bright ancestor was the culture hero of their mythology, their pristine instructor in the arts, and figured in some of their legends as a white man, who, in some remote time, visited them from the east, and brought them their civilization.

I desire to lay especial stress on these proofs of Light worship among the Delawares, for it has an immediate bearing on several points in the Walam Olum. There are no compounds [Pg 67] more frequent in that document than those with the root signifying "light," "brightness," etc. Next in order, or rather, parallel with and a part of the worship of Light, was that of the Four Cardinal Points, always identified with the Four Winds, the bringers of rain and sunshine, the rulers of the weather.

The Montauk Indians of Long Island, a branch of the Mohegans, also worshiped these four deities, as we are informed by the Rev Sampson Occum; [] and Captain Argoll found them again in among the accolents of the Potomac, close relatives of the Delawares. Their chief told him: "We have five gods in all, our chief god appears often unto us in the form of a mighty great hare, the other four have no visible shape, but are indeed the four winds, which keep the four corners of the earth. These are the fundamental doctrines, the universal credo , of not only all the Algonkin faiths, but of all or nearly all primitive American religions.

This is very far from the popular conception of Indian religion, with its "Good Spirit" and "Bad Spirit. Heckewelder, Brainerd and Loskiel all assure us in positive terms that the notion of a bad spirit, a "Devil," was wholly unknown to the aborigines, and entirely borrowed from the whites. Nor was the Divinity of Light looked upon as a beneficent father, or anything of that kind. The Indian did not appeal to him for assistance, as to his totemic and personal gods.

These were conceived to be in the form of animals, and various acts of propitiation to them were performed. Such acts were not a worship of the animals themselves. Brainerd explains this very correctly when he says: "They do not suppose a divine power essential to or inhering in these creatures, but that some invisible beings, not distinguished from each other by certain names, but only notionally, communicate to these animals a great power, and so make these creatures the immediate authors of good to certain persons.

Hence such a creature becomes sacred to the person to whom he is supposed to be the immediate author of good, and through him they must worship the invisible powers, though to others he is no more than another creature. They rarely attempted to set forth the divinity in image.

The rude representation of a human head, cut in wood, small enough to be carried on the person, or life size on a post, was their only idol. This was called wsinkhoalican. They also drew and perhaps carved emblems of their totemic guardian. Beatty describes the head chief's home as a long building of wood: "Over the door a turtle is drawn, which is the [Pg 69] ensign of this particular tribe.

On each door post was cut the face of a grave old man. Occasionally, rude representations of the human head, chipped out of stone, are exhumed in those parts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey once inhabited by the Lenape. There was a general belief in a soul, spirit or immaterial part of man.

For this the native words were tschipey and tschitschank in Brainerd, chichuny. The former is derived from a root signifying to be separate or apart, while the latter means "the shadow. Their doctrine was that after death the soul went south , where it would enjoy a happy life for a certain term, and then could return and be born again into the world. In moments of spiritual illumination it was deemed possible to [Pg 70] recall past existences, and even to remember the happy epoch passed in the realm of bliss. The path to this abode of the blessed was by the Milky Way, wherein the opinion of the Delawares coincided with that of various other American nations, as the Eskimos, on the north, and the Guaranis of Paraguay, on the south.

The ordinary euphemism to inform a person that his death was at hand was: "You are about to visit your ancestors;" [] but most observers agree that they were a timorous people, with none of that contempt of death sometimes assigned them. An important class among the Lenape were those called by the whites doctors, conjurers, or medicine men, who were really the native priests. They appear to have been of two schools, the one devoting themselves mainly to divination, the other to healing.

According to Brainerd, the title of the former among the Delawares, as among the New England Indians, was powwow , a word meaning "a dreamer;" Chip. They were the interpreters of the dreams of others, and themselves claimed the power of dreaming truthfully of the future and the absent. The other school of the priestly class was called, as we are informed by Mr. Heckewelder, medeu. Among the natives around New York Bay there was a body of conjurers who professed great austerity of life.

They had no fixed homes, pretended to absolute continence, and both exorcised sickness and officiated at the funeral rites. Their name, as reported by the Dutch, was kitzinacka , which is evidently Great Snake gitschi , achkook. The interesting fact is added, that at certain periodical festivals a sacrifice [Pg 72] was prepared, which it was believed was carried off by a huge serpent. When the missionaries came among the Indians, the shrewd and able natives who had been accustomed to practice on the credulity of their fellows recognized that the new faith would destroy their power, and therefore they attacked it vigorously.

Preachers arose among them, and claimed to have had communications from the Great Spirit about all the matters which the Christian teachers talked of. These native exhorters fabricated visions and revelations, and displayed symbolic drawings on deerskins, showing the journey of the soul after death, the path to heaven, the twelve emetics and purges which would clean a man of sin, etc. Such were the famed prophets Papunhank and Wangomen, who set up as rivals in opposition to David Zeisberger; and such those who so constantly frustrated the efforts of the pious Brainerd.

Often do both of these self-sacrificing apostles to the Indians complain of the evil influence which such false teachers exerted among the Delawares. The existence of this class of impostors is significant for the appreciation of such a document as the Walam Olum.

They were partially acquainted with the Bible history of [Pg 73] creation; some had learned to read and write in the mission schools; they were eager to imitate the wisdom of the whites, while at the same time they were intent on claiming authentic antiquity and originality for all their sayings. The principal sacred ceremony was the dance and accompanying song.

From this noisy rite, which seems to have formed a part of all the native celebrations, the settlers coined the word cantico , which has survived and become incorporated into the English tongue. Zeisberger describes other festivals, some five in number. The most interesting is that called Machtoga , which he translates "to sweat. This had evident reference to the twelve months of the year, but his description is too vague to allow a satisfactory analysis of the rite. General Remarks on the Lenape. Dialects of the Lenape. Special Structure of the Lenape.

The first study of the Delaware language was undertaken by the Rev. Thomas Campanius Holm , who was chaplain to the Swedish settlements, He collected a vocabulary, wrote out a number of dialogues in Delaware and Swedish, and even completed a translation of the Lutheran catechism into the tongue. On pages it has a Vocabularium Barbaro-Virgineorum , and on pages , Vocabula Mahakuassica.

The first is the Delaware as then current on the lower river, the second the dialect of the Susquehannocks or Minquas, who frequently visited the Swedish settlements. Although he managed to render all the Catechism into something which looks like Delaware, Campanius' knowledge of the tongue was exceedingly superficial. Trumbull says of his work: "The translator had not learned even so [Pg 75] much of the grammar as to distinguish the plural of a noun or verb from the singular, and knew nothing of the "transitions" by which the pronouns of the subject and object are blended with the verb.

At the close of his "History of New Sweden," Campanius adds further linguistic material, including an imaginary conversation in Lenape, and the oration of a sachem. It is of the same character as that found in the Catechism. After the English occupation very little attention was given to the tongue beyond what was indispensable to trading. William Penn, indeed, professed to have acquired a mastery of it. He writes: "I have made it my business to understand it, that I might not want an interpreter on any occasion. Thomas tells us that he lived in the country fifteen years, and supplies, for the convenience of those who propose visiting the province, some forms of conversation, Indian and English.

I subjoin a short specimen, with a brief commentary:— [Pg 76]. Hitah for n'ischu Mohegan, nitap , my friend; takoman , Zeis. Andogowa , similar to undachwe , he comes, Heck. Arwaymouse was the name of an Indian village, near Burlington, N. Keco , Zeis. Huska , Zeis. Chingo , Zeis. Halapa , Z. The principal authority on the Delaware language is the Rev. David Zeisberger, the eminent Moravian missionary, [Pg 77] whose long and devoted labors may be accepted as fixing the standard of the tongue.

Before him, no one had seriously set to work to master the structure of the language, and reduce it to a uniform orthography. With him, it was almost a lifelong study, as for more than sixty years it engaged his attention. To his devotion to the cause in which he was engaged, he added considerable natural talent for languages, and learned to speak, with almost equal fluency, English, German, Delaware and the Onondaga and Mohawk dialects of the Iroquois. As he did not himself see the proofs, he complained that both in its arrangement and typographical accuracy it was disappointing.

Shortly before his death, in , the second edition appeared, amended in these respects. A "Hymn Book," in Delaware, which he finished in , was printed the following year, and the last work of his life, a translation into Delaware of Lieberkuhn's "History of Christ," was published at New York in These, however, formed but a small part of the manuscript materials he had prepared on and in the language. The MS. A translation of it was prepared by Mr. The quadrilingual dictionary has never been printed. The volume is an oblong octavo of pages, containing about words in the English and German columns, but not more than half that number in the Delaware.

A number of other MSS. Associated with Zeisberger for many years was the genial Rev. John Heckewelder, so well known for his pleasant "History of the Indian Nations of Pennsylvania," his interpretations of the Indian names of the State, and his correspondence with Mr. He certainly had a fluent, practical knowledge of the Delaware, but it has repeatedly been shown that he lacked analytical power in it, and that many of his etymologies as well as some of his grammatical statements are erroneous.

Another competent Lenapist was the Rev. Johannes Roth. He was born in Prussia in , and educated a Catholic. Joining the Moravians in , he emigrated to America in , and in took charge of the missionary station called [Pg 79] Schechschiquanuk, on the west bank of the Susquehanna, opposite and a little below Shesequin, in Bradford county, Pennsylvania. There a son was born to him, the first white child in the area of the present State of Ohio. In he returned to Pennsylvania, and after occupying various pastorates, he died at York, July 22d, Roth has left us a most important work, and one hitherto entirely unknown to bibliographers.

He made an especial study of the Unami dialect of the Lenape, and composed in it an extensive religious work, of which only the fifth part remains. It is now in the possession of the American Philosophical Society, and bears the title:—. Ein Versuch! Wuntschi mesettschawi tipatta lammowewoagan sekauchsianup. Wulapensuhalinen, Woehowaolan Nihillalijeng mPatamauwoss. It forms a quarto volume, of title, 9 pages of contents in German and English, and pages of text [Pg 80] in Unami, written in a clear hand, with many corrections and interlineations.

This is the only work known to me as composed distinctively in the Unami, and its value is proportionately great as providing the means of studying this, the acknowledged most cultivated and admired of the Lenape dialects. It will be the task of some future Lenape scholar to edit its text and analyze its grammatical forms. But I believe that Algonkin students will be glad to see at this time an extract from its pages. The asterisk occurs in the original apparently to indicate that a word is superfluous or doubtful. The interlined translation I have supplied from the materials in the mission-Delaware dialect, but my resources have not been sufficient to analyze each word; and this, indeed, is not necessary for my purpose, which is merely to present an example of the true Unami dialect.

The Moravian Bishop, John Ettwein, was another of their fraternity who applied himself to the study of the Delaware. Born in Europe in , he came to the New World in , and died at the great age of ninety years in He prepared a small dictionary and phrase book, especially rich in verbal forms. It is an octavo MS. This manuscript exists in one copy only, in the Moravian Archives at Bethlehem. Bishop Ettwein also prepared for General Washington, in , an account of the traditions and language of the natives, including a vocabulary.

This was found among the Washington papers by Mr. One of the most laborious of the Moravian missionaries was the Rev. Adam Grube. His life spanned nearly a century, from , when he was born in Germany, until , [Pg 84] when he died in Bethlehem, Pa. Many years of this were spent among the Delawares in Pennsylvania and Ohio. He was familiar with their language, but the only evidence of his study of it that has come to my knowledge is a MS. The only date it bears is "Oct. Luckenbach, soon to be mentioned. After the War of the Moravian brother, Rev. Dencke, who, ten years before had attempted to teach the Gospel to the Chipeways, gathered together the scattered converts among the Delawares at New Fairfield, Canada West.

In he completed and forwarded to the Publication Board of the American Bible Society a translation of the Epistles of John, which was published the same year. He also stated to the Board that at that time he had finished a translation of John's Gospel and commenced that of Matthew, both of which he expected to send to the Board in that year. A donation of one hundred dollars was made to him to encourage him in his work, but for some reason the prosecution of his labors was suspended, and the translation of the Gospels never appeared contrary to the statements in some bibliographies.

It is probable that Mr. Dencke was the compiler of the Delaware Dictionary which is preserved in the Moravian Archives at Bethlehem. The handwriting is that of the late Rev. Kampman, [Pg 85] from to missionary to the Delawares on the Canada Reservation. On inquiring the circumstances connected with this MS. Dencke, but of this he was not certain. While the greater part of this dictionary is identical in words and rendering with the second edition of Zeisberger's "Spelling Book" with which I have carefully compared it , it also includes a number of other words, and the whole is arranged in accurate alphabetical order.

Dencke also prepared a grammar of the Delaware, as I am informed by his old personal friend, Rev. Holland, of Hope, Indiana; but the most persistent inquiry through residents at Salem, N. I fear that this precious document was "sold as paper stock," as I am informed were most of the MSS. A sad instance of the total absence of intelligent interest in such subjects in our country. The Rev. Abraham Luckenbach may be called the last of the Moravian Lenapists. With him, in , died out the traditions of native philology.

Born in , in Lehigh county, Pennsylvania, he became a missionary among the Indians in , and until his retirement, forty-three years later, was a zealous pastor to his flock on the White river, Indiana, and later, on the Canada Reservation. Translated into Delaware Indian, [Pg 86] by A. New York. Printed by Daniel Fanshaw, After his retirement in Bethlehem, he edited, in , the second edition of Zeisberger's "Collection of Hymns," the first of which has already been mentioned. A short MS.

Contents of this Issue

One of the most recent students of the Delaware was Mr. Matthew G. Henry, of Philadelphia. The derivations of the proper names are chiefly from Heckewelder, and in other cases are venturesome. The compilation, therefore, while often useful, lacks the salutary check of a critical, grammatical erudition, and in its present form is of limited value. Some of the later vocabularies collected by various travelers offer points for comparison, and may be mentioned here.

A comparison shows many of them to be in a corrupt form, owing either to the ignorance of the Shawnee authority, or to the inaccuracy of Major Denny in catching the sounds. While engaged on the Pacific Railroad survey, in , Lieut. Whipple [] collected a vocabulary of a little over words from a Delaware chief, named Black Beaver, in the Indian Territory, which was edited, in , by Prof.

It is evidently a pure specimen, and, as the editor observes, "agrees remarkably" with earlier authentic vocabularies. In the second volume of Schoolcraft's large work [] is a vocabulary of about words, obtained by Mr. Cummings, U. Indian Agent. The precise source, date and locality are not given, but it is evidently from some trustworthy native, and is quite correct. Some small works for the schools of the Baptist missions among the Delawares in Kansas were prepared by the Rev.

They appear to be entirely elementary in character. It will be observed that in this list not a single native writer is named. So far as I have ascertained, though many learned to write their native tongue, not one attempted any composition in it beyond the needs of daily life.

To make some amends for this, and as I wished to obtain an example of the Lenape of to-day, I asked Chief Gottlieb Tobias, an educated native on the Moravian Reservation in [Pg 88] Canada, to give me in writing his opinion of the Delaware text of the Walum Olum , which I had sent him. This he obligingly did, and added a translation of his letter. The two are as follows, without alteration:—. Nanne ni ngutschi nachguttemin, jun awen eet ma elekhigetup.

Woak alende nenostamen woak alende taku eli wtallichsin elewondasik wiwonalatokowo pachsi wonamii lichsu woak pachsi pilli lichsoagan. Taku ni nenostamowin. Lamoe nemochomsinga achpami eet newinachke woak chash tichi kachtin nbibindameneb nin lichsoagan. Mauchso lenno woak mauchso chauchshissis woak juque mauchso chauchshissis achpo pomauchsu igabtshi lue wiwonallatokowo won bambil alachshe. Woak lue lamoe ni enda.

Mimensiane ntelsitam alowi ayachichson won elhagewit woak ehelop ne likhiqui. Gichgi wonami lichso shuk tatcamse woak gichgi minsiwi lichso. Then I will try to answer this which some one at some time wrote. And some I understand, and some not, because his language is called Wonalatoko, half Unami and half another language.

I do not understand it. Long ago my grandfather about 48 years ago I heard it that language. One man and one old woman and now another old woman here lives yet who uses this Wonalatoko language just like this book and she said, I of old time when I was a child heard more difficult dialect than the present, and many at that time partly Unami he speak, but sometimes also partly Minsi he speak. The drift of Chief Tobias' letter is highly important to this present work, though his expressions are not couched in [Pg 89] the most perfect English. It will be noted that he recognizes the text of the Walum Olum to be a native production composed in one of the ancient southern dialects of the tongue, the Unami Wonami or the Unalachtgo Wonalatoko.

I shall recur to this when discussing the authenticity of that document on a later page. The Lenape language is a well-defined and quite pure member of the great Algonkin stock, revealing markedly the linguistic traits of this group, and standing philologically, as well as geographically, between the Micmac of the extreme east and the Chipeway of the far West. These linguistic traits, common to the whole stock, I may briefly enumerate as follows:—.

All words are derived from simple, monosyllabic roots, by means of affixes and suffixes. The words do not come within the grammatical categories of the Aryan language, as nouns, adjectives, verbs and other "parts of speech," but are "indifferent themes," which may be used at will as one or the other. To this there appear to be a few exceptions.

Expressions of being i. This forms the "animate and inanimate," or the "noble and ignoble" declensions and conjugations. The distinction is not strictly logical, but largely grammatical, many lifeless objects being considered living, and the reverse. This is the only modification of the kind known, true grammatical gender not appearing in any of these tongues.

Legends Summarized: The Monkey King (Journey To The West Part 1)

Expressions of action i. If the latter, it is indicated by a change in the vowel of the root.

This leads to a fundamental division of verbal modes into positive and suppositive modes. The expression of action is subordinate to that of being, so that the verbal elements of a proposition are secondary to the nominal or pronominal elements, and the subjective relation becomes closely akin to, or identical with, that of possession. The conception of number is feebly developed in its application to inanimate objects, which often have no grammatical plurals.